In the aftermath of the Battle of Actium (31 BC), Marcus Agrippa started an impressive building program: the Pantheon was a part of the complex created by him on his own property in the Campus Martiusin 29–19 BC, which included three buildings aligned from south to north: the Baths of Agrippa, the Basilica of Neptune, and the Pantheon. by emperor Marcus Agrippa, and according to Roman mythology the Pantheon stands on the spot where Romulus was carried away by an eagle after he died. The total of 16 columns, together with the four square antae that mediate between the portico and the transitional block, support an entablature and a tile-covered roof that is fronted by the imposing pediment.13 All stonework divides into two kinds: near-white marble from the quarries on Mount Pentelicon near Athens (the same marble that was used to make the Parthenon and its sculptures) and granite from Egypt. 1.10). 25 Romans measured bricks by the pes, or foot (about 29.5 cm). Perhaps, as Nesselrath proposes, Raphael was responding to impediments at the site, such as the medieval high altar that was refashioned in the 1490s. 8 For this connection, see Edmund Thomas, “From the Pantheon of the Gods to the Pantheon of Rome,” in Richard Wrigley and Matthew Cracke, eds., Pantheons: Transformations of a Monumental Idea, Aldershot, 2004, pp. Our thanks to Carla Trovini for this reference. We just follow what we call “The Pantheon Philosophy”, which is finding solutions to meet the needs of our customers. Several monarchs are buried there too, including Vittorio Emanuele II, who died in 1878 and was the first king of Italy since the 6th century; his son, Umberto I, who was assassinated in 1900, and Umberto’s wife, Queen Margherita, who passed away in 1926. 1680–1729). The Pantheon OS system is built on a robust foundation of free and open source software. On the cross axis, the exedras are semicircular, while on the diagonal axes their plan follows the curve of the rotunda. 145–153. The new altar, the work of Alessandro Specchi (1668–1729) was probably inspired by a report of 1714 on the history of the only two saints known by name – Anastasius and Rasius – from among the 28 martyrs reportedly brought to the Pantheon in the seventh century. (The Bern Digital Pantheon Project, BERN BDPP0087, drawn from information in Licht 1968), V. Plan of pavement, niches, and high altar; anonymous seventeenth-century drawing associated with the Bernini workshop. Hugo Brandenburg zum 65 Geburtstag, Boreas 17, Münster, 1994, pp. Some of these interventions are easy to identify, such as the coffering and other embellishments in the principal apse and of course any feature related to Christianity. (The Bern Digital Pantheon Project), Nearly every administration in charge of the Pantheon over the centuries sought to liberate the structure from the accretion of buildings around it and to limit the activity of vendors. (Conception Mark Wilson Jones, realization Robert Grover), One of the most intellectually compelling aspects of the Pantheon is the simple proportional scheme that underlies its form. (Kähler, Der römische Tempel 1970, after Beltrami 1898). Phocas ruled from 602 to 610 and Boniface IV from 608 to 615. At the beginning of the sixteenth century, their predecessor, Julius II (1503–1513), was too busy with the construction of St. Peter’s and the Vatican Palace to be interested in the Pantheon. However, other aspects of the composition in this area of the building undermine its unity. To avoid collapse, a brick wall was erected on a portion of its front and east-facing sides. Robin Williams’s chapter explains how, in a bit of unfortunate timing, Chédanne’s drawings were exhibited in Rome in 1895, just months after the new minister of public education, Guido Baccelli, had restored the Agrippan inscription on the facade at great expense. Vittorio Franchetti Pardo, Milan 2003, pp. (De Tournon 1855, Plate 30), Since the unification of Italy and the designation of Rome as its capital in 1860–1861, the Pantheon had been the target of many restorations and ephemeral embellishments. Thus, in the ensuing years it became the final resting place of Perino del Vaga (1547), Taddeo Zuccaro (1566), Giacomo Vignola (1573), and others. This event corresponded to the decision to locate commemorative niches and busts around the entire circumference of the building, as Pannini’s paintings show (Plate II). A hemisphere, therefore, hovers over a cylinder of the same radius and the same height, which means that a sphere can be inscribed in the whole space. Ancient sources allude to him as Trajan’s preferred designer and the author of three major projects in Rome: Trajan’s Forum, an unidentified odeon, and a gymnasium that can be presumed to be Trajan’s Baths.33 The attribution of the Pantheon to him cannot be proven, but it makes sense in several ways. It’s uncertain why, but Hadrian put Agrippa’s original inscription on the new Pantheon—“Marcus Agrippa the son of Lucius, three times consul, made this”—which led to centuries of years of confusion about its origins. The high altar itself was subject to many changes. Part of the work requested by the pope pertained to the attic; other parts involved decorations for the coffers of the dome. See now, Carolyn Y. Yerkes, “Drawings of the Pantheon in the Metropolitan Museum’s Goldschmidt Scrapbook,” Metropolitan Museum Journal 48, 2013, pp. Aided by countless photographs available on the Internet and laser-scanned surveys of the building, such as those produced by the Karman Center of the University of Bern, new information offers new insights on matters of construction and issues of stability. Schematic geometry of the Pantheon. Die Werkrisse vor dem Augustusmausoleum,” Mitteilungen des Deutschen Archäologischen Instituts, Römische Abteilung 101, 1994, pp. After the burial of Raphael’s consort, Maria Bibiena, came that of Baldassare Peruzzi, according to Vasari, near Raphael’s tomb where “all the painters, sculptors, and architects of Rome” were interred. Sadly, Soufflot died before his work was achieved, and his plans were not completely followed. In a concluding chapter to this volume, Richard Etlin discusses the various associative values that the Pantheon has embodied in the modern era. Representations from the Renaissance can be separated into two general groups: those images that attempted to record the monument as it stood and those that tried to “improve” or complete features of the building that were lost, damaged, or incomprehensible. (see Fig. Baccelli responded furiously, “Yet I have placed in bronze letters on the frieze of the Pantheon AGRIPPA FECIT; until I shall be with Minerva, vivaddio! (See Fig. Rodolfo Lanciani catalogued such acts of pillage of ancient architecture in his famous four-volume work, Storia degli scavi di Roma (1902–1912; a fifth volume appeared in 2000). 36–52. In 1911, Antonio Muñoz restructured Raphael’s tomb and altar.70, 1.22. 10.10 and 10.12).64, The presence of the vendors, merchants, and markets on the piazza persisted into the early nineteenth century when, under the Napoleonic regime of Prefect Camille De Tournon, the problem was once again addressed. More recent scholarship suggests instead that the Agrippan fabric was in fact oriented toward the north, and that its plan likewise combined a round space with a portico. Here, the alternating panels framed by ornamental moldings and pediments over window-like recesses can be firmly dated to 1753, when the ancient composition was heavily altered. 13–26; and more generally, Tod A. Marder, “Das Pantheon,” in Rom: Meisterwerke der Baukunst von der Antike bis heute, Festgabe für Elisabeth Kieven, ed. (Photo archive, National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C.), 1.23. The new scheme remains in the building for all visitors to see: a remarkably dull combination of rectangular fields and pedimented window frames (see Plate VIII). The granite came, in turn, from two quarries, the rose or pink granite from Aswan and the gray granite from the more remote quarry at Mons Claudianus, located between the Red Sea and the Nile. Unknowns and apparent contradictions will continue to puzzle, enchant, and defy definition or full comprehension. This, then, is a scheme of elemental beauty and simplicity redolent of Greek mathematics, a connection that Giangiacomo Martines proposes here. 1, Oxford 1896, p. 88. These relationships suggest both a generative and a visual function for the measurements employed. by statesman Marcus Agrippa, and is thought to have been designed as a temple for Roman gods. 41 Antonio Muñoz, “La decorazione medioevale del Pantheon,” Nuovo bullettino di archeologia cristiana 18, 1912, pp. Contracts for these marble figures in 1725 and 1727 tell us that St. Rasius by Moderati was located to the left of the high altar and St. Anastasius by Cametti to the right, where they are seen today (Fig. Why, for example, has one of the three exedras (or alcoves) been omitted in his rendering of the view embracing the entrance and altar bays? 38 Bede, Historia ecclesiastica gentis anglorum ii, 4; cf. Thus, in 1715, a scheme was developed to refashion the high altar, which included a large tabernacle that may have utilized the older porphyry columns on site. 1.16). The gilded coffering pattern in the apse and the Albani emblems (three mounts and stars) on the projecting entablatures flanking it are the only notable remains of Specchi’s work.55. In recent publications, Louise Rice has revisited and exposed this maneuver, which had given rise to the already cited pasquinade “What the barbarians didn’t do, the Barberini did.” The use of the bronze for a liturgical ensemble was evidently more acceptable than for cannon, although in truth, none of the metal was used at St. Peter’s. 237 ff. 44–48; and Marder, “The Pantheon After Antiquity,” in Gerd Grasshoff, Michael Heinzelmann, and Markus Wäfler, eds., The Pantheon in Rome: Contributions to the Conference in Bern, November 9–12, 2006, Bern, 2009, pp. 7 Eugenio La Rocca, s.v. See also Wilson Jones 2000, pp. 60 See the 1836 painting of the event by Francesco Diofebei in the Thorwaldsen Museum, Copenhagen. Today we can also appreciate how the elevation repeatedly severs vertical connections and encourages the perception of an attic floating over the main order and, in turn, the dome floating over the attic. It’s unknown who the existing Pantheon’s architect was or exactly what role Hadrian played in the project. 273–291, and Chapter Ten in this volume. The building is no simple archaeological artifact awaiting forensic dissection but a living monument. (Uffizi A 164 recto), 1.17 a and b. Meanwhile, the marble entablature over the columns, with its more elaborate smaller modillions, runs down the sides of the intermediate block and dead-ends unceremoniously at the rotunda without any corresponding architectural feature on the curved body of the building. The present-day Pantheon is located on the site of an earlier structure of the same name, constructed around 25 B.C. In the event, however, financial and practical realities overtook these ambitions. 354–357. 12.8 and Plate XXIV). 33 REFERENCES Cartwright, M. 2013, Pantheon. Principles of Roman Architecture. 3–10, and Chapter Four in the present volume. Additionally, the Pantheon’s architect, Jacques-Germain Soufflot, had the intention of combining the lightness and brightness of the Gothic cathedral with classical principles. However, Thomas was of the opinion that the Tychaion stood in Antioch in Syria, whereas Alexandria is identified as the site by La Rocca in his chapter here, as confirmed by Judith. In other words, the composition of the building is governed by a coherent set of dimensions, which facilitated its design and execution, as well as contributing to its essential formal aspect. The Pantheon (Latin: pantheum) is the best-preserved building from ancient Rome and was completed in c. 125 CE in the reign of Hadrian. 127–138. The Tholos was an underground domed tomb used since Neolithic times. Being based on free software, it can benefit from greater security and privacy than proprietary software because the source code can be controlled by anyone in the community, whether it is a security researcher or a worried user, and anyone can make sure that the software is secure and does not collect or disclose … 35–58; Mark Wilson Jones, Principles of Roman Architecture, New Haven 2000, Chap. 77–94; Wilson Jones 2000, Chapter 3, including Fig. The main axis runs through the rectangular entrance space and terminates at the semicircular exedra that is the main apse (Fig. Kunsthistorische Studien Hans Kauffmann zum 70. Geburtstag 1966, ed. The fuller context is recounted in the following and more extensively in the chapter on the Pantheon during the seventeenth century. rev., 1982, pp. The Pantheon portico or entryway is a symmetrical, classical design with three rows of Corinthian columns—eight in the front and two rows of four — topped by a triangular pediment. Eveline G. Bouwers, New York 2012, pp. 2 recto), The eight columns that define the facade of the Pantheon stand in front of eight more columns arranged so as to form two aisles and a central passage. 127–138. 31 Mark Wilson Jones, “Principles of Design in Roman Architecture: The Setting Out of Centralised Buildings,” Papers of the British School at Rome 57, 1989, pp. The intermediate block is built of brick-faced concrete, whose exterior is still covered in some places by dressed stone and decorative elements (Fig. In the Baroque era, Bernini concurred with these judgments but, stepping beyond his predecessors, also recognized how the pilasters of the attic story formed a contrapuntal or syncopated rhythm in diminished proportion to the vertical elements rising from the pavement.48 Thus, the wider and narrower bays that compose the cadence of the main order rising from the pavement were repeated on a smaller scale in the attic. 1.7. The eight columns of the front have shafts of the gray hue, while the other eight have shafts of pink, though due to patination and grime, the chromatic variation can seem marginal in some light conditions. (The Bern Digital Pantheon Project), VIII. Still others thought that Agrippa must have built the rotunda during the reign of Augustus, while the portico should be attributed to later emperors, either Hadrian or Antoninus Pius or Septimius Severus, for all of whom there was some epigraphic and literary testament. In 1270, it was marked by a ciborium composed of porphyry columns, and a low stone parapet surmounted by six more porphyry columns surrounded the altar precinct. Róma. 155–156. Financial constraints and compromise with entrenched forces also limited Alexander’s work on the interior of the Pantheon. The English pilgrim John Capgrave repeated this story in the early 1450s, recounting how the ancient general Agrippa had seen a vision of Cybele and vowed a church to her and all of the gods if his campaign against the Persians was successful.39 None of these dedications – not even the Christian function of the building – guaranteed it immunity from depredation. By contrast, the well-known disagreements between Hadrian and his inherited architect Apollodorus, which according to one tradition proved literally fatal for the latter, would have arisen after Hadrian’s accession to power.35, The Pantheon in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. (1997) ↑ Ürögdy: Ürögdy, György. One of his skills was the ability to construct accurate technical drawings to scale. 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